Thursday, May 21, 2020

ECO2103 Tutorial 5 - 1105 Words

ECO2103 Principles of Microeconomics Tutorial 5 Question One a) You are studying with a friend and your friend says A budget line shows the various combinations of two goods that can be purchased with the buyers income at current prices. Is your friends assessment correct or not? b) How is a budget line similar to a production possibilities frontier? How do they differ? c) Why budget line has a negative slope? What does the slope of the budget line equal? d) What is an indifference curve? e) Why do consumers prefer higher indifference curves (farther to the right) to lower indifference curves? f) In an indifference curve/budget line framework, how does a consumer decide which of all possible combinations of goods to purchase? g)†¦show more content†¦The price of a movie is $15. i) Along budget line BL1, what is the price of a dinner? ii) What combination of dinners and movies will George select along budget line BL1? iii) Budget line BL2 represents a change in the price of dinners from that along BL1. What is the new price of dinners along this budget line? iv) What combination of dinners and movies will George select along budget line BL2? v) Use the information in this problem to give two points on Georges demand curve for dinners. b) Olivias income is $216 a year and she spends all of it on music CDs and movies on DVDs. The price of a music CD is $18 and the price of a DVD is $18. i) Draw a graph of Olivias budget line (with CDs on the horizontal axis). What is the slope of Olivias budget line? ii) What quantities of CDs and DVDs does Olivia buy? Explain your solution. iii) What is Olivias marginal rate of substitution at the point at which she consumes? Explain. c) Record companies, faced with the growing competitions from digital music download services, lower the price of a music CD from $18.00 to $13.50. The price of a DVD is $18. Olivias income is $216 a year and she spends all of it on music CDs and movies on DVDs. i) Draw a graph of Olivias budget line (with CDs on the horizontal axis). What is the slope of Olivias budget line? The figure above illustrates Olivias preferences. ii) Given the price of a CD, the price of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Nypd - 801 Words

Situation Since taking over as commissioner in 1994, William Bratton has transformed NYPD into an effective deterrent of crime through a series of strategic organizational changes. Crime rate in New York has decreased by 25.9% in just a year compared to the average national rate of 5.4%. Now, NYPD’s results oriented strategy needs to sustain its momentum and continue to produce results, despite falling budgets, labor disputes and difficulty in getting resources allocated. In this paper, I will review the challenges Bratton faced, analyze his change decisions and discuss his options to confront new issues. Critical challenges Bratton faced NYPD had a long history of reactive investigation of crime, controlled by a strong centralized†¦show more content†¦Ideas developed by the re-engineering team made their way into 7 strategies. He realized that transformation is not possible unless many people are willing to help, and publicized the need for change by adopting a sustained public relations campaign. Next, he had to remove obstacles to his vision, which in this case was the organizational structure. Middle managers were given more authority through decentralization and local control was established over local problems. This devolving of authority empowered them to deploy resources more intelligently and ensured credibility of the change effort as a whole. CompStat meetings were introduced to measure results with greater consistency and reliability, hold the middle manager accountable for their actions and encourage inter-bureau coordination. Cost efficiency was attained through introduction of new technology. Bratton defined short term goals (like 10% reduction in 1994) and pushed the organization hard to attain these goals. In two years, there was a significant decline in crime and improved job satisfaction and morale within NYPD. Bratton’s options to confront the challenges In 1996, Bratton faced several challenges including budget cuts, labor wage disputes, restrictions on deployment of resources and inability to reward performance, all of which threatened to hamper the momentum of changes. HisShow MoreRelatedNypd Case Essay900 Words   |  4 Pagesto the central computer system information about the time, location, and nature of the incident. If the incident was not previously reported, the information is electronically relayed to the police patrol dispatcher for the appropriate precinct. NYPD Patrol System Columbia Business School p.1  © 1998, Linda V. Green - 67 - Dispatchers are civilians who are responsible for assigning patrol cars to 911 incidents in the precincts they handle. They also monitor the status of incidents andRead MoreWilliam Bratton and the Nypd12122 Words   |  49 Pagesyale case 07-015 rev. february 12, 2008 William Bratton and the NYPD Crime Control through Middle Management Reform Andrea R. Nagy1 Joel Podolny2 William Bratton, commissioner of the New York Police Department from 1994 to 1996, presided over a dramatic decline in the city’s crime rate. Hired by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani as part of a new crime fighting initiative, Bratton embraced the â€Å"broken windows† theory that had made him so successful as chief of the city’s transit police. According toRead MoreNypd Radicalization Report : Summary1155 Words   |  5 PagesNYPD Radicalization Report –Executive Summary The NYPD research addresses the issue of Islamic-based terrorism threat in New York City since September 2001. According to the study, the attack plots are planned and conceptualized by residents utilizing Al-Qaeda as their ideological reference and inspiration point (Silber, M. D., Bhatt, A., 2001). The research applies the quantitative method of data collection, which entails observation and surveying procedure. Through surveying technique, UnitedRead MoreThe Nypd s Stop And Frisk1557 Words   |  7 PagesBack than and up until now we still see an abundance of crime rate on the streets from illegal possession to murder. Ex mayor Michael Bloomberg has implemented a policy called Stop and Frisk in 2002. Some say it worked some say it doesn’t, from a ten-year period data shows that more then 5 million stops were made on young African American men who just made 1.9 percent of the city’s population according to New York Civil Liberties Union. Many politicians say it was a racial policy but it took weaponsRead MoreThe Nypd s Counter Terrorism Bureau941 Words   |  4 PagesSince 9/11 the NYPD has made enormous strides in countering terrorism. They have created the Counter terrorism Bureau with over one thousand officers assigned to it. The bureau is responsible for a number of operation including, counterterrorism operations, training and exercise for NYPD personnel, along with risk assessment and critical infrastructure protection of key sites within New York City. The Deputy Commissioner of intelligence also has an expanded role. NYPD officers are now deployed worldwideRead MoreNYPD Whistleblower Retaliation – Detective Labeled A Rat Essay575 Words   |  3 PagesIn 2005 NYPD Detective, first grade, James E. Griffith called internal affairs to report he was being pressured by a fellow officer to lie and take the blame during an internal inquiry for the mishandling of a homicide investigation by his unit (Goldstein, 2012). Another detecti ve and union official claimed in his deposition that Griffin was a rat because he went to internal affairs instead of the union (Marzulli, 2013). According to the United States District Court Eastern District of New York’sRead MoreThe Stop and Frisk Policy of the NYPD is Not Justifiable Essay examples2281 Words   |  10 Pages The judicial system in America has always endured much skepticism as to whether or not there is racial profiling amongst arrests. The stop and frisk policy of the NYPD has caused much controversy and publicity since being applied because of the clear racial disparity in stops. Now the question remains; Are cops being racially biased when choosing whom to stop or are they just targeting â€Å"high crime† neighborhoods, thus choosing minorities by default? This paper will examine the history behind stopRead MoreEvaluation Of The Nypd s Performance Measurement System Essay1808 Words   |  8 PagesCity; New York City Police Department (NYPD) is one of them. This paper will analyze the NYPD’s performance measurement system also known as compstat. This paper will show how this performance known as comptat collects data, its area of interest, and frequency of data collection etc. The purpose of the NYPD is to improve the â€Å"quality of life† in New York City. It is done by fighting crime through the prevention of criminals in the city. But if the action of NYPD is being effective or not is only possibleRead MoreThe Nypd Frisk Program : Noble Cause Corruption Situation Essay1629 Words   |  7 PagesWe must start in the research of the NYPD Frisk Program: Noble Cause Corruption situation with the Fourth Amendment‘s which protects a person against unreasonable searches and seizures of the U.S. Constitutional 4th Amendment. Further review of the 4th Amendment law provides guidelines for the search and seizure between police and citizens in a public place. The terms â€Å"stop-and-frisk† is used as one, then the reality is that its two separate acts. Stops are the first act with frisks being the secondRead MoreCase Study 1 : NYPD Frisk Program : Noble Cause Corruption?1226 Words   |  5 Pagesessay, I will evaluate the merit of the police action in the three videos and apply concepts of ethical behavior that are relevant to the actions demonstrated by the police officers depicted. Case Study 1: NYPD Frisk Program: Noble Cause Corruption The behavior of the New York Police Department (NYPD) as illustrated in the video is unethical because the manner in which the police handcuff the robbery suspects. The people in the video get stopped because they look or act a certain way. The searches are

Country Report on Road Safety Initiatives in Malaysia Free Essays

Country Report on Road Safety Initiatives in MALAYSIA Datuk Suret Singh Director General Road Safety Department Malaysia Basic Information Country : Malaysia ? ? ? ? ? Population: 26. 4 Million in 2006 Square Kilometer: 392876km2 Road Length: 72,400 km No of Registered Vehicles: 15,790,732 Vehicle Kilometer Travelled/year: 337. 8 Billion VKT Malaysia Definition and Data System Definition: ? Fatality: Deaths within 30 days ? Serious: All Required Hospitalization ? Slight Injury: Out Patient or Self Treatment Data System: ? Police Data Form : Standard POL27 Accident Form Database/System: Computerized MAAP System Annual Accident Report availability: Yes ? Hospital Data Injury classification used: AIS retrieval System: Many System used, in process of Standardization Malaysia Safety Target and Management National Safety Target? : ? 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Country Report on Road Safety Initiatives in Malaysia or any similar topic only for you Order Now 0 Deaths/10,000 vehicles by 2010 ? 10 Deaths100,000 population 2020 ? 10 Deaths per Billion VKT by 2020 National Safety Plan? : ? Availability: Yes, National Road Safety Plan 2006-2010 ? strategies : 9 Strategies ? Programs: 52 Programs Availability of Institutional Set-up ? ? ? ? Road Safety Department (2005) MIROS (2007) National Road Safety Council (50 years ago) Annual Budget Allocated for Road Safety Programs Malaysia Road Safety Facts (1996-2006) Year Registered Vehicles Road Length (Km) Number of accidents Death 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 7,686,684 8,550,469 9,141,357 9,929,951 10,589,804 11,302,545 12,068,144 12,868,934 13,801,297 14,816,407 15,790,732 60,734 63,382 63,382 64,981 64,981 64,981 64,981 71,814 71,814 72,400 72,400 189,109 215,632 211,037 223,166 250,417 265,175 279,237 298,651 326,815 328,268 341,252 6,304 6,302 5,740 5,794 6,035 5,849 5,887 6,282 6,228 6,200 6,287 Fatality Index Per 10,000 Vehicles 8. 20 7. 37 6. 28 5. 83 5. 70 5. 17 4. 88 4. 88 4. 51 4. 18 3. 98 Per 100,000 Population 29. 8 29. 1 25. 3 25. 5 26. 0 25. 1 25. 3 25. 1 24. 3 23. 7 23. 6 Per Billion VKT 40. 4 36. 3 30. 9 28. 7 28. 0 25. 5 24. 0 24. 0 22. 2 20. 6 Malaysia 19. 6 Key Issues and Challenges Key Problems Identified ? Target Groups: Motorcyclists (53%) Car Occupants (22%) Pedestrians (10%) ? Target Issues: Head Injuries among motorcyclists Un segregated VRUs Malaysia Fatality by Casualty Class Malaysia Strategic Programs and Projects Program Potential % Intervention Coverage Reduction 2007 2008 2009 2010 AES Speed Cameras Redlight Cameras Lane Displine Helmet Program Rear Seat Belts Airbags Driver Training RSE and CBP Mcycle Lanes Blackspots Others 20 20 0 30 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 60 20 65 40 20 30 20 20 20 20 100 90 60 100 60 40 50 50 30 30 30 100 90 80 100 80 60 60 80 40 40 40 % 30 40 20 50 30 30 10 20 80 30 20 No of Deaths Expected No. f Fatality Reduction Involved/yr 2007 2008 2009 2010 1400 150 450 1500 350 400 300 400 500 500 350 84 12 0 225 21 12 3 8 40 15 7 427 3. 45 252 36 18 488 42 24 9 16 80 30 14 420 54 54 750 63 48 15 40 120 45 21 420 54 72 750 84 72 18 64 160 60 28 6300 Deaths/10,000 Vehicles 1009 1630 1782 2. 94 2. 45 2. 21 Malaysia MIROS0 7 One Most Successful Road Safety Intervention Name: Exclusive Motorcycle Lane Program Problem Statement: Rear-End and Side Swipe along High Speed Links Double Low Speed Links Issues Identified: Un-segregated leading to Conflicts among Fast, Un Compatible VRUs and Larger Vehicles Rationale for Intervention: Segregation reduce Conflicts, Risk and Exposures Detailed Intervention Programs: 3m Exclusive Lane fully segregated Impact of Intervention: 39% less Accidents, 83% Less Fatalities, BCR=5 Malaysia How to cite Country Report on Road Safety Initiatives in Malaysia, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Watergate2 Essay Example For Students

Watergate2 Essay In June of 1972 an event occurred that changed the course of history. On June 12,1972 there was a break-in at the Watergate Hotel. When the police arrived they found 5men equipped with electronic bugging devices and burglary tools at the headquarters forthe Democratic National Convention. Two of the individuals were James McCord and G. Gordon Liddy, both members of the committee to re-elect the president. A third suspectwas E. Howard Hunt, a former CIA agent and White House aide. When the news broke President Nixon claimed that no one in the White House hadany prior knowledge to the burglary. The break-in was part of an elaborate plan byCREEP to sabotage Nixon’s opposition for re-election. A week after the break in Nixonagreed to cover up the White House’s involvement in the break in. Nixon claimed thatany further investigation of the scandal was a threat to national security and needed tocease immediately. This plan seemed to work until early 1973 when the trial for theWatergate break-in began. Nixon had his chance to come clean at this time, but he chosenot to. This only made things worse for him Once the trial began his involvement in thecover up became greater, and involved blackmailing by those who were on trial for theThe Watergate trial was brief, 5 of the defendant plead guilty and the other 2 wereconvicted by the jury. Before Judge Sircia sentenced the defendants there was a letterwritten by McCord read to the court that implicated that higher ups in the White HouseAdministration had prior knowledge of the burglary and had committed perjury. Nixon’scover up was beginning to come apart and he told the American public that he had noprior knowledge of the break in or the cover up that followed until March 21, which was alie. By April 30, 1973 Nixon was under extreme pressure and announced to America theresignation of his key advisors and legal consul. On May 22, 1973 Nixon came before theAmerican public and told of his involvement in the wiretapping and how he had helpedestablish the Intelligence Unit to protect any threat to national security. We will write a custom essay on Watergate2 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The summer of 1973 was a turning point in the Watergate Scandal. The SenateWatergate Hearings began, and they were led by Senator Sam Ervin. The trial wastelevised and the American public was able to see the political sabotage and deception thatwas carried out by the White House. America learned of the hush money that was paidand the destruction of evidence to keep the affair under wraps. The testimony of John Dean in June of 1973 was particularly damaging to Nixon. Dean’s testimony was clear, concise and to the point. He informed the committed of a setof tapes that were made in the Oval Office that would implicate Nixon’s involvement inthe scandal. Archibald Cox, who was the special prosecutor on the case wanted the tapes,and he demanded them from Nixon, who refused to hand them over. On October 20 ofthat year Cox again demanded the tapes and was prepared to get a court order for Nixonto turn them over. In turn Nixon ordered attorney general Richardson to fire Cox, whichhe refused, as did the deputy attorney general. Both men resigned. On that Saturdaynight the solicitor general carried out Nixon’s wishes and fired Cox. With the threat ofImpeachment looming Nixon turned over the tapes. While the struggle for the tapes wasgoing on there were additional charges brought against the president. .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 , .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .postImageUrl , .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 , .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1:hover , .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1:visited , .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1:active { border:0!important; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1:active , .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1 .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u10cce8d4dba304c01618db4e11f21fb1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Essay On Queen VictoriaOn July 30, 1974 the committee voted on 3 articles of impeachment. Nixon wasaccused of obstructing justice, violating his oath, abusing his power, subverting theconstitutional rights of citizens, and disobeying subpoenas for White House records andOn August 8, 1974 Nixon went on national television announce his resignation. He admitted no wrong doing, but admitted to using bad judgmentBibliography:

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Timeline of the Mexican-American War

Timeline of the Mexican-American War The Mexican-American War (1846–1848) was a brutal conflict between neighbors largely sparked by the US annexation of Texas and their desire to take western lands such as California away from Mexico. The war lasted about two years in total and resulted in a victory for the Americans, who benefited greatly from the generous terms of the peace treaty following the war. Here are some of the more important dates of this conflict. 1821 Mexico gains independence from Spain and difficult and chaotic years follow. 1835 Settlers in Texas revolt and fight for independence from Mexico. October 2: Hostilities between Texas and Mexico commence with the Battle of Gonzales. October 28: The Battle of Concepcion takes place in San Antonio. 1836 March 6: The Mexican army overruns the defenders at the Battle of the Alamo, which becomes a rallying cry for Texas independence. March 27: Texan prisoners are slaughtered at the Goliad Massacre. April 21: Texas gains independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto. 1844 On September 12, Antonio Là ³pez de Santa Anna  is deposed as President of Mexico. He goes into exile. 1845 March 1: President John Tyler signs the official proposal of statehood for Texas. Mexican leaders warn that annexing Texas could lead to war. July 4: Texas legislators agree to annexation. July 25: General Zachary Taylor and his army arrive in Corpus Christi, Texas. December 6: John Slidell is sent to Mexico to offer $30 million for California, but his efforts are rebuffed. 1846 January 2: Mariano Paredes becomes President of Mexico.March 28: General Taylor reaches the Rio Grande near Matamoros.April 12: John Riley deserts and joins the Mexican army. Because he did so before war was officially declared, he could not legally be executed later when he was captured.April 23: Mexico declares defensive war against the United States: it would defend its territories under attack but not take the offensive.April 25: Captain Seth Thorntons small reconnaissance force is ambushed near Brownsville: this small skirmish would be the spark that kicked off the war.May 3–9: Mexico lays siege to Fort Texas (later renamed Fort Brown).May 8: Battle of Palo Alto is the first major battle of the war.May 9: Battle of Resaca de la Palma takes place, which results in Mexican army being forced out of Texas.May 13: US Congress declares war on Mexico.May: The St. Patricks Battalion is organized in Mexico, led by John Riley. It consisted largely of Irish-born deserters from the U S army, but there are also men of other nationalities. It would become one of Mexicos best fighting forces in the war. June 16: Colonel Stephen Kearny and his army leave Fort Leavenworth. They will invade New Mexico and California.July 4: American settlers in California declare the  Bear Flag Republic in Sonoma. The independent republic of California only lasted a few weeks before American forces occupied the area.July 27: Mexican President Paredes leaves Mexico City to deal with a revolt in Guadalajara. He leaves Nicols Bravo in charge.August 4: Mexican President Paredes is deposed by General Mariano Salas as chief executive of Mexico; Salas re-institutes federalism.August 13: Commodore Robert F. Stockton occupies Los Angeles, California with naval forces.August 16: Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returns to Mexico from exile. The Americans, hoping he would promote a peace accord, had let him back in. He quickly turned on the Americans, stepping up to lead the defense of Mexico from the invaders.August 18: Kearny occupies Santa Fe, New Mexico.September 20–24: The Siege of Monterrey: Taylor capt ures the Mexican city of Monterrey. November 19: US President James K. Polk names Winfield Scott as leader of an  invasion force. Major General Scott was  a highly decorated veteran of the War of 1812 and the highest-ranking US military officer.November 23: Scott leaves Washington for Texas.December 6: Mexican Congress names Santa Anna President.December 12: Kearny occupies San Diego.December 24: Mexican General/President Mariano Salas turns over power to Santa Annas Vice-president, Valentà ­n Gà ³mez Farà ­as. 1847 February 22–23: The Battle of Buena Vista is the last major battle in the northern theater. The Americans will hold the ground they gained until the end of the war, but not advance any farther.March 9: Scott and his army land unopposed near Veracruz.March 29: Veracruz falls to Scotts army. With Veracruz under control, Scott has access to resupply from the USA.February 26: Five Mexican National Guard units (the so-called polkos) refuse to mobilize, rebelling against President Santa Anna and Vice-President Gà ³mez Farà ­as. They demand repeal of a law forcing a loan from the Catholic Church to the government.February 28: Battle of Rio Sacramento near Chihuahua.March 2: Alexander Doniphan and his army occupy Chihuahua.March 21: Santa Anna returns to Mexico City, takes control of the government and reaches an agreement with the rebellious polkos soldiers.April 2: Santa Anna leaves to fight Scott. He leaves Pedro Marà ­a Anaya in the Presidency.April 18: Scott defeats Santa Anna at the Battle of Cerro Gordo. May 14: Nicholas Trist, charged with eventually creating a treaty, arrives at Jalapa.May 20: Santa Anna returns to Mexico City, assumes the presidency once more.May 28: Scott occupies Puebla.August 20: The Battle of Contreras and the Battle of Churubusco open the way for the Americans to attack Mexico City. Most of the St. Patricks Battalion is killed or captured.August 23: Court-martial of members of St. Patricks Battalion at Tacubaya.August 24: Armistice is declared between US and Mexico. It would only last about two weeks.August 26: Court-martial of members of St. Patricks Battalion at San Angel.September 6: Armistice breaks down. Scott accuses Mexicans of breaking the terms and using the time on defenses.September 8: Battle of Molino del Rey.September 10: Sixteen members of St. Patricks Battalion are hanged at San Angel.September 11: Four members of St. Patricks Battalion are hanged at Mixcoac.September 13: Battle of Chapultepec: Americans storm gates into Mexico City. Thirty mem bers of St. Patricks Battalion hanged within sight of the castle. September 14: Santa Anna moves his troops out of Mexico City. General Scott occupies the city.September 16: Santa Anna is relieved of command. The Mexican government attempts to re-group in Querà ©taro. Manuel de la Peà ±a y Peà ±a is named President.September 17: Polk sends recall order to Trist. He receives it on November 16 but decides to remain and finish the treaty. 1848 February 2: Trist and Mexican diplomats agree on the  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.April: Santa Anna escapes from Mexico and goes into exile in Jamaica.March 10: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the USA.May 13: Mexican President Manuel de la Peà ±a y Peà ±a resigns. General Josà © Joaquà ­n de Herrera is named to replace him.May 30: The Mexican Congress ratifies the treaty.July 15: The last US troops depart Mexico from Veracruz. Sources and Further Reading Foos, Paul. A Short, Offhand, Killing Affair: Soldiers and Social Conflict During the Mexican-American War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.Guardino, Peter. The Dead March: A History of the Mexican-American War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017.McCaffrey, James M. Army of Manifest Destiny: The American Soldier in the Mexican War, 1846-1848. New York: New York University Press, 1992.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Earths Elliptical Path Around the Sun

Earth's Elliptical Path Around the Sun Earths motion around the Sun was a mystery for many centuries as very early sky watchers attempted to understand what was actually moving: the Sun across the sky or Earth around the Sun. The Sun-centered solar system idea was deduced thousands of years ago by the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos. It wasnt proved until Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus proposed his Sun-centered theories in the 1500s, and showed how planets could orbit the Sun. Earth orbits the Sun  in a slightly flattened circle called an ellipse. In geometry, the ellipse is a curve that loops around two points called foci. The distance from the center to the longest ends of the ellipse is called the semi-major axis, while the distance to the flattened sides of the ellipse is called the semi-minor axis. The Sun is at one focus of each planets ellipse, which means that the distance between the Sun and each planet varies throughout the year.   Earths Orbital Characteristics When Earth is closest to the Sun in its orbit, it is at perihelion. That distance is 147,166,462 kilometers, and Earth gets there each January 3. Then, on July 4 of each  year, Earth is as far from the Sun as it ever gets, at a distance of 152,171,522 kilometers. That point is called aphelion. Every world (including comets and asteroids) in the solar system that primarily orbits the Sun has a perihelion point and an aphelion. Notice that for Earth, the closest point is during northern hemisphere winter, while the most distant point is northern hemisphere summer. Although theres a small increase in solar heating that our planet gets during its orbit, it doesnt necessarily correlate with the perihelion and aphelion. The reasons for the seasons are more due to our planets orbital tilt throughout the year. In short, each part of the planet tilted toward the Sun during the yearly orbit will get heated more during that time. As it tilts away, the heating amount is less. That helps contribute to the change of seasons more than Earths place in its orbit. Useful Aspects of Earths Orbit for Astronomers Earths orbit around the Sun is a benchmark for distance. Astronomers take the average distance between Earth and the Sun (149,597,691 kilometers) and use it as a standard distance called the astronomical unit (or AU for short). They then use this as shorthand for larger distances in the solar system. For example, Mars is 1.524 astronomical units. That means its just over one-and-a-half times the distance between Earth and the Sun. Jupiter is 5.2 AU, while Pluto is a whopping 39.,5 AU.   The Moons Orbit The Moons orbit is also elliptical. It moves around Earth once every 27 days, and due to tidal locking, always shows the same face to us here on Earth. The Moon doesnt actually orbit Earth; they actually orbit a common center of gravity called a barycenter. The complexity of the Earth-Moon orbit, and their orbit around the Sun results in the apparent changing shape of the Moon as seen from Earth. These changes, called phases of the Moon,  go through a cycle every 30 days. Interestingly, the Moon is slowly moving away from Earth. Eventually, it will be so far away that such events as total solar eclipses will no longer occur. The Moon will still occult the Sun, but it wont appear to block the entire Sun as it does now during a total solar eclipse. Other Planets Orbits The other worlds of the solar system that orbit the Sun have different length years due to their distances. Mercury, for example, has an orbit just 88 Earth-days long. Venuss is 225 Earth-days, while Marss is 687 Earth days. Jupiter takes 11.86 Earth years to orbit the Sun, while Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto take 28.45, 84, 164.8, and 248 years, respectively. These lengthy orbits reflect one of Johannes Keplers laws of planetary orbits, which says that the period of time it takes to orbit the Sun is proportional to its distance (its semi-major axis). The other laws he devised describe the shape of the orbit and the time each planet takes to traverse each part of its path around the Sun. Edited and expanded by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Comparsion Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Comparsion - Term Paper Example â€Å"Trifles† analyzes the dark shades underlying the married life of John and Minnie Wright and the attitude of Henderson, Hale and Peters to Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale. Torvald’s attitude towards Nora in â€Å"A Doll’s House† resembles the men’s attitude towards the women in â€Å"Trifles† and gender assumptions contribute to the conflict in the two plays. Torvald’s attitude towards Nora is that of the benevolent patriarch. She is his â€Å"little lark,† â€Å"squirrel,† and â€Å"little featherhead!† (Ibsen, Act I). He considers her to be a â€Å"helpless little mortal† (Act II), who is so lacking in sense that she cannot even take care of her teeth: he forbids her to eat macaroons. He expects obedience from her and complacently responds â€Å"No, I am sure of that,† when Nora declares â€Å"I should not think of going against your wishes† (I). Nora is a child, who needs to be guided and wat ched over. When he catches her in a little lie, he actually â€Å"Shakes his finger at her† in admonishment (I). He agrees with Nora when she says, â€Å"Everything I think of seems so silly and insignificant† (I). He takes great pleasure in criticizing and correcting her dance. Torvald attitude is very sanctimonious. When Nora says, â€Å"Everything you do is quite right, Torvald,† he replies, â€Å"Now my little skylark is speaking reasonably† (III). Her criticism of his attitude towards Krogstad as â€Å"narrow-minded,† inflames him and he deliberately dismisses Krogstad immediately. He treats Nora as a â€Å"doll-wife† (III) whose priority is to amuse him with tricks of â€Å"dancing and dressing-up and reciting† (I). Torvald criticizes her money-sense by saying, â€Å"That is like a woman† (I). Torvald treats Nora as a parent would an indulged, irresponsible and helpless child. Torvald’s attitude toward his wife is reflected in the attitude of the men towards the women in â€Å"Trifles.† The men are extremely condescending in their treatment of Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale in the play. When Minnie Wright’s concern over her preserves is aired, Henderson declares that â€Å"women are used to worrying about trifles† (Glaspell, 9). Likewise, â€Å"the men laugh† (17) at their preoccupation with Minnie’s work on her patchwork quilt. The question as to whether Minnie intended â€Å"to quilt it or just knot it† becomes a recurring joke which has connotations of masculine superiority and amused tolerance. The men are prepared to indulge the women in their little worries and Henderson figuratively gives them a sanctimonious pat on the back with his â€Å"what would we do without the ladies?† (9). The men ignore the kitchen in their search for evidence, with the Sheriff dismissing it â€Å"as nothing here but kitchen things† (8). The implication is th at the kitchen is the woman’s domain and, as such, does not deserve to be given much importance. A woman’s duty is as a housekeeper and she is expected to keep a spick and span house. The men are aware that their indulgent attitude towards the perceived fragility and insignificance of women will be mirrored by the jury: Henderson points out â€Å"But you know juries when it comes to women† (28). In line with his refusal to take the women seriously, Henderson does not bother to check the things carried out by the women. The vast disconnect between male assumptions and the reality of women directly